Django Extension

New in 2.0.0

Dynaconf extensions for Django works by patching the settings.py file with dynaconf loading hooks, the change is done on a single file and then in your whole project every time you call django.conf.settings you will have access to dynaconf attributes and methods.

Ensure dynaconf is installed on your env pip install dynaconf[yaml]

Initialize the extension

You can manually append at the bottom of your django project’s settings.py the following code:

# HERE STARTS DYNACONF EXTENSION LOAD (Keep at the very bottom of settings.py)
# Read more at https://dynaconf.readthedocs.io/en/latest/guides/django.html
import dynaconf  # noqa
settings = dynaconf.DjangoDynaconf(__name__)  # noqa
# HERE ENDS DYNACONF EXTENSION LOAD (No more code below this line)

Or optionally you can, on the same directory where your manage.py is located run:

export DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE=yourapp.settings
$ dynaconf init

# or passing the location of the settings file

$ dynaconf init --django yourapp/settings.py

Dynaconf will append its extension loading code to the bottom of your yourapp/settings.py file and will create settings.toml and .secrets.toml in the current folder (the same where manage.py is located).

TIP Take a look at example/django_example

Using DJANGO_ environment variables

Then django.conf.settings will work as a dynaconf.settings instance and DJANGO_ will be the global prefix to export environment variables.

Example:

export DJANGO_DEBUG=true     # django.conf.settings.DEBUG
export DJANGO_INTVALUE=1     # django.conf.settings['INTVALUE']
export DJANGO_HELLO="Hello"  # django.conf.settings.get('HELLO')

Settings files

You can also have settings files for your Django app, in the root directory (the same where manage.py is located) put your settings.{yaml, toml, ini, json, py} and .secrets.{yaml, toml, ini, json, py} files and then define your environments [default], [development] and [production].

NOTE: .yaml is the recommended format for Django applications because it allows complex data structures in easy way, but feel free to choose any format you are familiar with.

To switch the working environment the DJANGO_ENV variable can be used, so DJANGO_ENV=development to work in development mode or DJANGO_ENV=production to switch to production.

IMPORTANT: To use $ dynaconf CLI the DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE environment variable must be defined.

IF you don’t want to manually create your config files take a look at the CLI

Customizations

It is possible to customize how your django project will load settings, example: You want your users to customize a settings file defined in export PROJECTNAME_SETTINGS=/path/to/settings.toml and you want environment variables to be loaded from PROJECTNAME_VARNAME

Edit django settings.py and modify the dynaconf extension part:

from:

# HERE STARTS DYNACONF EXTENSION LOAD
...
settings = dynaconf.DjangoDynaconf(__name__)
# HERE ENDS DYNACONF EXTENSION LOAD

to:

# HERE STARTS DYNACONF EXTENSION LOAD
...
settings = dynaconf.DjangoDynaconf(
    __name__,
    GLOBAL_ENV_FOR_DYNACONF='PROJECTNAME',
    ENV_SWITCHER_FOR_DYNACONF='PROJECTNAME_ENV',
    SETTINGS_MODULE_FOR_DYNACONF='/etc/projectname/settings.toml',
    ENVVAR_FOR_DYNACONF='PROJECTNAME_SETTINGS',
    INCLUDES_FOR_DYNACONF=['/etc/projectname/plugins/*'],
)
# HERE ENDS DYNACONF EXTENSION LOAD

Variables on environment can be set/override using PROJECTNAME_ prefix e.g: export PROJECTNAME_DEBUG=true.

Working environment can now be switched using export PROJECTNAME_ENV=production it defaults to development.

Your settings are now read from /etc/projectname/settings.toml (dynaconf will not perform search for all the settings formats). This settings location can be changed via envvar using export PROJECTNAME_SETTINGS=/other/path/to/settings.py{yaml,toml,json,ini}

You can have additional settings read from /etc/projectname/plugins/* any supoprted file from this folder will be loaded.

You can set more options, take a look on configuration

Reading Settings on Standalone Scripts

NOTE: The recommended way to create standalone scripts is by creating management commands inside your Django applications or pugins.
IMPORTANT If you need that script to be out of your Django Application Scope, it is also possible and if needed you can use settings.DYNACONF.configure() instead of the common settings.configure() provided by Django.

Examples:

Examples below assumes you have DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE environment variable set, either by exporting it to your env or by explicitly adding it to os.environ dictionary.

IMPORTANT: If you call settings.configure() directly dynaconf will be disabled. As you have DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE exported you don’t need to call it, but if you need please use: settings.DYNACONF.configure().

Common case

/etc/my_script.py

from django.conf import settings
print(settings.DATABASES)

Explicitly adding the setting module

/etc/my_script.py

import os
os.environ['DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE'] = 'foo.settings'

from django.conf import settings
print(settings.DATABASES)

When you need the configure

Calling DYNACONF.configure() is needed when you want to access dynaconf special methods like using_env, get, get_fresh etc…

/etc/my_script.py

from django.conf import settings
settings.DYNACONF.configure()
print(settings.get('DATABASES'))

Importing settings via importlib

/etc/my_script.py

import os
import importlib
settings = importlib.import_module(os.environ['DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE'])
print(settings.get('DATABASES'))

Testing on Django

Django testing must work out of the box!

But in some cases when you mock stuff and need to add environment variables to os.environ on demand for test cases it may be needed to reload the dynaconf.

To do that write up on your test case setup part:

import os
import importlib
from myapp import settings # NOTE: this uses your app module not django.conf

class TestCase(...):
    def setUp(self):
        os.environ['DJANGO_FOO'] = 'BAR'  # dynaconf should read it and set `settings.FOO`
        importlib.reload(settings)

    def test_foo(self):
        self.assertEqual(settings.FOO, 'BAR')

Explicit mode

Some users have the preference to explicitly load each setting variable inside the settings.py and then let django manage it in the common way, it is possible.

NOTE Doing this way misses the ability to use dynaconf methods like using_env, get etc on your django applications code, you can use it only inside settings.py

Dynaconf will be available only on settings.py scope, on the rest of your application settings is managed by Django normally.

settings.py

import sys
from dynaconf import LazySettings

settings = LazySettings(**YOUR_OPTIONS_HERE)

DEBUG = settings.get('DEBUG', False)
DATABASES = settings.get('DATABASES', {
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': '...',
        'NAME': '...
    }
})
...

# At the end of your settings.py
settings.populate_obj(sys.modules[__name__])

You can still change env with export DJANGO_ENV=production and also can export variables lile export DJANGO_DEBUG=true

Knowm Caveats

  • If settings.configure() is called directly it disables Dynaconf, use settings.DYNACONF.configure()

Deprecation note

On old dynaconf releases the solution was to add dynaconf.contrib.django_dynaconf to INSTALLED_APPS as the first item, this still works but has some limitations so it is not recommended anymore.